HISTORICAL SKETCH ABOUT DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS OF ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCIES
Apollinarievich Rozhansky is the founder of the school of radiophysics in Kharkov State
University. He was also the Professor of the Kharkov Imperial University, the Head of the
physics department, subsequently an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He
made an inestimable contribution into the study of characteristics of the sparkling
vibrational discharge and the concomitant resonance effects. He also suggested the method
of the oscilloscoping of quick electric processes and he was one of the designers of the
electric oscilloscope. Under the guidance of his disciple, academician of the
Academy of Sciences of the USSR A. A. Slutskin, the first magnetron and radiolocational
station in the USSR were constructed.
Aleksey Ivanovich Tereshenko was one
of the founders of the Dept. of Physics of Ultra High Frequencies. The first graduates of
the faculty were the students that studied physics of ultra high frequencies (UHF). The
staff of the teachers and collaborators of the Dept. was formed by graduates from the
faculty of Physics and mathematics of Kharkov State University of 1950-1952. The first
Head of the Dept. of Physics of UHF was A. I. Tereshenko.
of scientific researches of UHF Dept. and the subjects of special disciplines were
determined according to the needs of the developing branches of industry that constructed
radiolocational and rocket technique for the country. The collaborators and postgraduates
of the Department started studying and developing electric devices for the UHF-band
klystrons, magnetrons etc.
Petrovich Shestopalov and Nickolay Antonovich Khizhnyak, subsequently professors, doctors
of Physics&Mathematics, Laureates of the National Prizes, took part in the development
of scientific school of the Department. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR, V. P. Shestopalov became a director of one of the biggest research institutes of the
USSR – Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
of radiotechnique development and increased demands to the specialists led in 1960s to
necessity of spreading the circle of scientific interests of the Department. Some
researches in the area of transmission-line and wave-guide-cavity systems, including
periodical were started. As a result, the Department started training specialists on two
specializations: “Physics of UHF” and “Physics of semiconductors”.
years in the life of the Department were extremely hard. Young collaborators have got a
very difficult task on creating new laboratory practices, developing lecture courses,
formulating themes of the first graduation theses. The Department’s staff training was
one of the main tasks. Every week scientific seminars at the Department were held.
Young collaborators have got their experience at the leading enterprises of the country
and took part in the national scientific conferences. The programs of experience exchange
with the leading high educational institutes of the country were realized. Exactly at that
time, the first Contract on UHF-electronics was done (A. I. Tereshenko), and then the
second one on semiconductors (L. A. Zubritsky) was done too. Thanks to such economically
contractual policy, some funds at the Department were spent for purchasing new equipment
for scientific investigations. New found allowed to raise the level of scientific
researches. In 1960 the first Candidate thesis (eqv. PhD) by B.M.Bulgakov, V. M. Sedyh, K.
P. Yatsuk and V. A. Slyusarsky were defended.
time at the Department new special courses on the latest achievements in the area of UHF
appear “Waveguides and cavities”, “Delaying systems”, “UHF Antennas”, “The
Ferrites and dielectrics in UHF”, “Parameters amplifiers”, “Cryogenic
process of training in 50s and 60s was provided by V. M. Sedykh, K. P. Yatsuk, Yu.V.
Shubarin, A. F. Zorkin, T. N. Anishenko, V. A. Korobkin, N. V. Lyapunov, L. A. Zubritsky,
V. M. Dmitriev, N. I. Lesik, N. M. Kovtun, D. S. Denisov, I. I. Saprykin.
The 4-th National conference of radioelectronics, held in 1960 in Kharkov,
was the starting point for the development of a new scientific trend at the Department:
electromagnetic wave spreading in wide-band electrodynamic structures. N.V. Lyapunov, A.F.
Zorkin, V.M. Dmitriev started investigations in area of wave-guiding systems with complex
form of cross-section. The first author’s certificate for the inventions of the group of
authors headed by V.M. Sedykh (“A cruciform waveguide”) was appeared.
K. P. Jatsuk studied propagation of electromagnetic waves in delaying
systems. N. V. Kovtun and V. A. Korobkin studied the waveguides and cavities with complex
form of the cross-section, containing ferrite and dielectrical inserts. The subject of the
further investigations was different kinds of transmission lines and devices. Associate
Professor Shubarin made a considerable contribution into the development of UHF-antennas.
1960s and 1970s were marked with changes in the structure of the Department.
In 1963 A.I. Tereshenko became a Rector of the Kharkov Institute of mining Engineering,
automation and computering.
The Head of the UHF Department became Victor Matveevich
Sedykh (1928-1983). The specialization of semiconductors seceded into a
self-sufficient unit at the Department of general physics and antennas subject became
leading at the Department of electroradiotechnique (in 1963 Shubarin became the Head of
the Department). At the Department of Physics of UHF there was only one specialization
left – “Physics of UHF”.
The scientific investigations were held in 3 directions:
- “Wide-band transmission lines and devices based on their
“Waves exciting and propagation in radial UHF -
systems” (K.P. Yatsuk),
“The investigations of UHF-devices at the enhanced power level” (V.A. Korobkin).
In 1978 at the Department new research laboratory was
organized. That scientific direction was called “The laboratory of UHF-devices at the
enhanced power level” (V.A. Korobkin).
The publishing activity of the Department was effected by
scientific investigations results. In 1960 the book “UHF - antennas” by Shubarin was
published; in 1962 – the book “Metrology at the UHF” by Shubarin and Zorkin. In 1969
the book “Delaying systems” by K.P. Jatsuk was published. The monograph entitled
“The waveguides with the cross-selection of complex form” (under redaction of
Sedykh) was published in 1979.
Strong connections of the Department with large scientific
organization and industrial enterprises of the country is being established in that time.
The great Contracts by the Government decisions are being made.
The essential result of this period is that almost all young
teachers of the Department (in the main graduates from the Department) defended their
candidate theses (eqv. PhD). They are V.A. Korobkin, N.M. Kovtun, A.F. Zorkin, N.V.
Lyapunov, V.M. Dmitriev, T.N. Anishenko, D.S. Denisov, N.I. Lesik. Furthermore students
took part in the scientific investigations. Most of their graduate papers had scientifical
and practical value. They were exhibited at the city, national and federal competitions of
student’s scientific works, won prizes and were published in serious scientific
journals. Students became co-authors of the requests for inventories.
Perfect conditions for work and study, the atmosphere of
goodwill among the teachers in combination with their high demands bring the best marks to
the UHF-Department. During many years, graduates from the Department kept friendly
relations with his teachers. Scientific contacts with former students were often the
source of new ideas.
In 80s and 90s the Department continues to develop the
scientific line of investigations being germinated in 1970s, but one formulates and solves
more and more serious tasks of fundamental and applied character. Collaborators of the
Department defend 15 candidate theses, and V.M. Sedykh and K.P. Jatsuk – doctor theses
(eqv. Doctor of Phys.&Math. Sci.). One of the new candidates was S.A. Pogarsky, who
subsequently defends a doctor thesis.
Under the head of professor V.M. Sedykh the problems of
creation of the element-base for receiving devices based on new types of
transmission-lines have been solved. These elements are made with wing high technologies
that are distinguished by small dimensions and weight. Author’s rights for the
construction of transition from standard transmission-lines to microstrip lines, filters,
directional couplers, attenuators, modulators etc have been defended. There are projects
on transferring to the millimeter wave investigations. The first radiometer in this
frequency band in Kharkov State University is being designed. A number of researches on
the problem of using the transmission-lines at low temperatures was performed.
During the period from 1983 to 1986 N.A. Khizhnyak (1929-2001) was the Head of the
Department. He applied methods of integral equations for studying the laws of dispersion
on dielectrical insertions in wave-guides.
The scientific research laboratory of “The UHF devices at the enhanced power level” is
developing under the head of V.A. Korobkin. The investigations of the Department are
connected with theoretical and experimental researches of the resonances in wave-guiding
bifurcations with isotropic and anisotropic insertions. For the first time in the
world’s history a great number of designs of devices based on wave-guiding and
dielectrical resonators most of which are protected by authorized certificates. Different
methods of measuring parameters of anisotropic dielectrics at UHF are being developed out,
the diffraction by anisotropic insertions in wave-guiding bifurcations problems were
investigated. In this scientific school a lot of candidate theses are defended (by
N.I.Pyatak, V.Ja.Dvadnenko, V.I.Grutsyak, V.V.Osintsev, A.G.Yushenko).
Under the head of Prof. K.P.Yatsuk researches of laws of propagation and radiation of
radial waves in UHF band were held. The cases of complicated radial transmission lines
with anisotropic conducting border are being studied. Solving of this problem allowed to
realize wide-band antennas with controlled polarization. Within this school the candidate
theses by V. I. Malyavko, V. P. Krivohizha, J. I. Grebenyuk, S. A. Boyko were defended.
A. A. Zvyagintsev has been the Head of the Department. His scientific interests are
connected with the study of beam methods, complex raise and tracts in tasks of
propagation, diffraction and dispersion of electromagnetic waves by impedance structures.
In the same time great attention is paid to electrodynamics of wave-guiding structures
with anisotropic medium and to developing of non-destructive control methods. A. V.
Strizhachenko is defending his thesis on this scientific school.
In 1988 A. A. Shmat’ko came to the Department. His scientific interests are mainly
connected with the theory of none-linear interaction of electronic beams with fields of
extended delaying systems. Great attention is paid to the development of the theory of
spreading non-stationary signals and to interaction of such signals with the substance.
Within this school O. S. Ostrovsky and E. N. Odarenko are defending their candidate
Nowadays new methods of analytical-numerical calculation of transmission lines of
millimeter band are being developed under the head of S. A. Pogarsky.They include
computer analysis, synthesis, optimization of UHF devices. New methods of energy saving
for different technological processes are being worked out.
scientific interests of the Department grew, there was a change in special courses. Since
1970 the students have attained such courses as “Theory of waveguides and
cavities”, “Theory and application of the surface waves at UHF”, “Radiometric”,
”Non-linear interaction of waves with electronic beams”, “Exciting of open
wave-guiding systems”, “Microelectronic UHF devices”, “Introduction in UHF
physics”, “Calculating methods in electrodynamics of UHF”, “Integral equations”.
Nowadays new courses have been prepared: “The use of UHF energy”, “Beam methods in
diffraction, radiation and propagation of radiowaves”, “Methods of solving problems of
electrodynamics and electronics”.
For students of all Departments of FR school (full- and part-time departments) UHF
Department provides common lecture courses: “UHF physics”, “UHF electronics”,
“Theory of wave processes”, provides practice on these disciplines.
Nowadays the process of studying is provided by skilled teachers such as academician of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, professor S. A. Pogarsky. L. N. Litvinenko, professors A. A.
Shmat’ko and S. A. Pogarsky, Assistant Professors A. A. Zviagintsev, N. I. Pyatak, D. S. Denisov, E. N. Odarenko and A. B. Strizhachenko.
Useful connections with leading scientific research institutes and higher educational
institutions of Russia – MIEM RAS and MSU, with Kharkov research institute – IRE NAS
of Ukraine, RI NAS of Ukraine etc., participation in all the conferences of the former
USSR, a range of publications in foreign scientific journals, author’s certificates and
licenses – everything has broad respect of many famous people of the country for the
Department of Physics of UHF.
For the time of its existence the UHF Department has prepared more than 500 specialists,
who work now at Departments of physics and mathematics, at research institutes and other
enterprises of Kharkov, Ukraine, and the Commonwealth. Every ninth graduate from the
Department has defended a candidate thesis, and more than 10 became doctors of science.
They are I. P. Yakimenko, V. M. Dmitriev, I. K. Yanson, F. F. Mende, A. S. Snurnikov, A.
G. Shein, S. S. Kalmykova, I. M. Balaklitsky, N. N. Gorobets, L. P. Yatsuk, S. A.
Pogarsky. One of the doctors, I. K. Yanson, became an actual member of the NAS of Ukraine.
our graduates – doctors and candidates of science are the Head departments and
laboratories of large academical institutes now, their works are well-known both in our
country and abroad.